Pythagoras of Samos (c. 570 – c. 495 BC) was an ancient Ionian Greek philosopher, polymath and the eponymous founder of Pythagoreanism. His political and religious teachings were well known in Magna Graecia and influenced the philosophies of Plato, Aristotle, and, through them, the West in general. Knowledge of his life is clouded by legend, but he appears to have been the son of Mnesarchus, a gem-engraver on the island of Samos or the city of Tyre.
Pythagoras is best known for the Pythagorean theorem, which states that in any right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. This theorem is one of the most important in mathematics, and it has many practical applications in surveying, navigation, and construction.
Pythagoras is also credited with making significant contributions to music theory and astronomy. He believed that the universe was governed by mathematical principles, and he sought to understand the relationships between numbers and music. He is also said to have been the first to discover that the Earth is spherical.
Pythagoras founded a religious and philosophical school in Croton, Italy, which taught that the soul is immortal and that the universe is governed by mathematical principles. The Pythagoreans also believed in vegetarianism and the importance of music and mathematics in education.
Pythagoras's teachings had a profound influence on Western thought. His emphasis on mathematics and reason helped to lay the foundation for modern science. His ideas about the soul and the afterlife also influenced Christianity and other Western religions.
Pythagoras was a complex and fascinating figure, and his legacy continues to inspire people today. He was a true pioneer in mathematics, music, astronomy, and philosophy.