Realms of the earth


The four realms of the Earth are the lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere. These realms are interconnected and interdependent, and they support all life on Earth.
  • Lithosphere: The lithosphere is the solid outer layer of the Earth. It is made up of the crust and upper mantle, and it extends to a depth of about 100 kilometers. The lithosphere is constantly moving and changing due to plate tectonics.
  • Hydrosphere: The hydrosphere is the water realm of the Earth. It includes all of the water on Earth, including the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and glaciers. The hydrosphere covers about 71% of the Earth's surface.
  • Biosphere: The biosphere is the realm of life on Earth. It includes all of the living things on Earth, from the smallest bacteria to the largest whales. The biosphere is found in all parts of the Earth's system, from the deepest oceans to the highest mountains.
  • Atmosphere: The atmosphere is the gaseous layer that surrounds the Earth. It is made up of a mixture of gases, including nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and argon. The atmosphere protects the Earth from harmful radiation and helps to regulate the planet's temperature.
The four realms of the Earth are constantly interacting with each other. For example, the water cycle moves water between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. The lithosphere can provide habitats for living things in the biosphere, and the atmosphere can transport nutrients and seeds around the planet.
The realms of the Earth are essential to life on Earth. They provide the resources that living things need to survive and thrive. It is important to protect and manage the realms of the Earth sustainably so that future generations can enjoy the benefits that they provide.


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